This is the blog of the Perfect English NYC website. If you are looking for private 1:1 ESL/English lessons/tutoring, please go to the HOME page to get started. If you are looking for FREE resources to help you learn English, please check out the links to your right. Posts below may contain short lessons, ideas for self-study, and/or stories about American culture, holidays, traditions, etc — and especially about life in New York City for newcomers!
Most of my students want PRIVATE lessons. They are self-conscious about their English, and don’t want an audience on the world wide web! However, last week I was asked to teach a lesson on somebody’s livestream. I wasn’t sure, how it would work. We were supposed to meet indoors for a regular lesson, but we wound up meeting outside. It was cold and windy. I didn’t write anything down, which is unusual for me. The student was interrupted by his audience, who had many questions and comments! It was very distracting!
Here is a link to the livestream. My lesson starts at about 1:20:
Let’s try something different. I’ve created an audio file, so you can listen to this lesson as you follow the transcript below. Words in boldface are explained in a short glossary beneath the text.
“Bait and switch” is a commonly used expression. It comes up in conversation, and it’s mentioned sometimes in newspaper and magazine articles. In fact, if you google it, you’ll find plenty of references!
Here is a dialogue using the expression. Can you guess the meaning from context? (If you are having trouble with some of the idioms, there’s a vocabulary list at the end of this post.)
Jane: How did it go at Appliance Superstore? Did you get the television you saw advertised?
Joe: Do you mean the 42 inch Samsung television for $200?
Jane: Yes. That sounds like a great deal.
Joe: I didn’t get it. I waited outside the store for two hours before they opened. I was one of the first people inside, but they told me it was already sold out.
Jane: Sold out? You mean there were none left?
Joe: Yeah. That’s what “sold out” means. Then they tried to sell me another television. It was some brand I’d never heard of before, a 22 inch screen, and they wanted $400!
Jane: Let me see if I get this. You went in looking for a Samsung 42 inch television for $200, and when you got there they tried to sell you an inferior brand smaller television for double the price???
Joe: Yes. That’s exactly what happened.
Jane: That sounds like bait and switch to me!
As you can see, “bait and switch” is when you offered something that sounds great, but when you show up, you find out that what is actually being offered is of lower quality and/or higher price.
Here’s another example:
Sarah: How did your date go?
Gina: You mean my date with that guy I met on the online dating app?
Gina: It was a disaster. He turned out to be 75 years old!
Sarah: 75 years old! What? But I saw his picture. He looked like Keanu Reeves, back when he in The Matrix!
Gina: That’s because he used a photo of Keanu Reeves, back from when he was in The Matrix! The guy didn’t look anything like that.
Sarah: Hmmm. I thought he looked familiar. So you’re telling me that this guy used a photo of a movie star to lure you into going on a date with him even though he was much older and didn’t look anything like the guy in the photo?
Gina: Yes. It was bait and switch.
Maybe this has happened to you? Have you ever booked a hotel room after seeing a beautiful photo online, only to discover the room looked nothing like the photo?
The word “bait” can be used as a noun or a verb. It is used a lot for fishing and hunting.
In fishing, the fisherman uses a worm as bait. The bait is the thing that attracts or lures the fish. Sometimes in hunting, a hunter will set out food as bait to attract animals. If you ever tried to catch a mouse in a mousetrap, you probably used a piece of cheese as bait.
Bait as a noun: I put bait in the mousetrap, but the mouse didn’t take the bait.
Bait as a verb: I baited the mousetrap with cheese, but the mouse didn’t take it.
The word “switch” can also be used as a noun or a verb. To switch something, is to replace something with another thing. For example, I switched from regular coffee to decaf because I was having trouble sleeping.
Swtich as noun: I made the switch to decaf because I was having trouble falling asleep.
Switch as a verb: We switched hotels because we didn’t like the place we were staying.
Here’s your takeaway: Bait and switch is when someone uses an attractive offer as bait to lure you in, but then that person or business switches their offer and tries to sell you something of lesser value and/or higher price.
There were many phrasal verbs, and idioms used in this post. Here is a list of words and phrases that might be new to you:
It comes up a lot. “come up” is a phrasal verb with different meanings. Here “comes up” means “is mentioned.”
I didn’t get it. In this context, “get” substitutes for “obtain.”
…it was already sold out. “Sold out” means the store has none left.
Let me see if I get this. Here “get” substitutes for “understand.”
When you got there… Here “get” substitutes for “arrive.”
show up: appear
find out: discover, in the sense of learn new information
He turned out to be 75 years old. Turned out is a phrasal verb with a few different meanings. In this context it means: It proved to be the case that he was 75 years old.
to lure: Lure is a verb with a similar meaning as attract or draw in.
to book: As a verb “book” can mean reserve. Example: We’d like to book a room.
takeaway: “Takeaway” when used as one word is a noun. It is often used in business and education to mean the main point that you “take away” or “take with you” from a presentation, lesson etc.
I hope you enjoyed this lesson. If you are interested in 1 to 1 English lessons please explore the site!
“Why isn’t there a direct subway line to the airport?”
“Why is it so expensive to get to Kennedy?”
“I always take Uber, but how do you New Yorkers get to the airport?
I get these questions a lot. Many of my English language students are here on work transfers, or they are the spouses of someone with an L-1 visa. They love to explore U.S. destinations, including San Francisco, Seattle, and Los Angeles . They enjoy going back home for the holidays. Some of them have a “revolving door” of visitors crashing on their couch. They often lament the high cost of getting to the airport, and are surprised that a major city like New York, doesn’t offer better options. Usually, they take Uber.
Today I’m going to give you some other options for getting to JFK. I will follow up with posts on getting to Newark Airport and LaGuardia.
(Quick Disclaimer: I am NOT a lawyer and this blog post does not constitute legal advice. If you have questions about your visa or ability to work in the United States, consult an immigration attorney!)
Congratulations! Your spouse works for a multinational company or organization and just got a job transfer to New York or maybe Los Angeles, or another major American city. You are excited about the prospect of spending a year or maybe more in a foreign country.
However, there’s one little problem….
While this is a great career opportunity for your better-half, it might not be so great for your career. Maybe, if you are very lucky, your company will allow you to stay on and work remotely, but with the time difference between the US and Europe, that might not work out so well. Chances are you are going to have to take a long leave or quit your job.
But there’s some good news: You can work legally in the United States!
“Hooking up” is a phrasal verb – which means (as all my ESL students know) it is an expression containing a verb and a preposition.
Once upon a time is a phrase we use to start fairy tales. It was also used in the very first Star Wars film, in the opening captions where we learn that the story takes place “Once upon a time, in a galaxy far, far away. Sometimes we use “once upon a time” ironically to mean “a not so long time ago in the past,” as in the following:
Once upon a time “hooking up” was an innocuous expression used in the following way:
John: My flight was delayed, so I won’t be able to meet you at the breakfast. I should get to the conference by noon.
Kevin: That’s fine. There’s a lunch break at noon. We’ll hook up then.
John: Great! I’m looking forward to it.
In this context, “hook up” is very similar to “meet up.” Here’s another example, just to make the point:
Sarah: So did you have a chance to talk to John at the conference?
Kevin: No, his flight was delayed, and then he got stuck in traffic, and I was on the panel in the afternoon. We never managed to hook up.
However, in recent years the expression “hook up” or “hooking up” has taken on another meaning, which has just about supplanted the previous meaning. Here is an example of how you are likely to hear it used:
John: I really like Sarah, but I think she’s dating Kevin isn’t she?
Beth: Dating? I don’t know about that. They may have hooked up a couple of times back in college, but I think now they’re just friends.
John: Friends with benefits?
Beth: Maybe once upon a time. I doubt it in the present. Kevin lives with his girlfriend, and I hear she keeps him on a pretty tight leash. Honestly, I doubt that Sarah and Kevin are more than co-workers.
John: Wow. I don’t think I’d be too comfortable with that history if I was Kevin’s girlfriend!
Beth: Oh c’mon! What happens in college stays in college.
“Back” is another one of those words with multiple meanings in English. The definition in the English Language Learner’s Dictionary is huge, and it doesn’t even cover some of the most common uses!
Most American native-English speakers will recognize the phrase “I’ll be back.” It was a line from the movie The Terminator. Arnold Swartzeneggar says it very menacingly – as a warning — before he leaves a store. Maybe it sounds scary in the movie BECAUSE it is such a commonly used phrase. The meaning is simple: “I will return.”
For this post, I’ve collected many of the common phrases you’ll here with back. You’re likely to hear them on the street, in the office, on television, and just about everywhere else. (more…)
Most of my students are newcomers to New York. Some already understand that New Yorkers love to get away from the city, especially on long weekends during the summer, but if you didn’t make plans, it’s not too late to have a fun three-day weekend. There a lots of interesting places to explore within the five boroughs of New York City, and there are plenty of easy day trips outside of the city that don’t require finding a “last minute” car rental.
Here are five ideas for outdoor excersions that will feel like mini-vacations.
- Explore Manhattan’s Northern Tip
You can start by catching the A train to 207th Street. From there you can visit Fort Tryon Park. The park offers beautiful Hudson River views on winding paths. This is also where you can find visit The Cloisters. You can then walk to Inwood Hill Park, which offers hiking trails with old growth trees. There is also a Nature Center there where you can learn more about the local ecology. Sometimes there are additional activities sponsored by the Parks Department, such as kayaking. (more…)
Someone should write a book on all the uses of “get” in the English language. This post is for a select audience of grammar-nerds and advanced English language learners already familiar with “get” in everyday speech. Sorry, but this is not where you are going to learn 500 new idiomatic phrases with “get.” I’m going to attempt to focus on when to use “got” and when to use “gotten.”
Okay, let’s go!
Here’s the lowdown:
Most of those handy PDFs that list commonly used irregular verbs have two past participles listed for the verb “get.” Those past participles are “got” and “gotten.” Which one is correct?
Some lists break it down by classifying “got” as British English and “gotten” as American English, but that’s not helpful. In North America(US and Canada) we use both “got” and “gotten” and we use them for different things. (more…)
All languages have phrases and saying involving parts of the body. English has a lot of them! I’m only going to write about a few of the more common uses of the word “hand” here. If you would like more, please let me know in the comment section below.
Let’s start with the use of hand as a verb. Hand is a regular verb. (It takes “ed” in the past and perfect tenses.) In its simplest form it means to pass or give something to someone. (more…)
(I have had conversations with all of my students – even the beginners – about the coming election. Here is a post explaining as simply as I can how the United States elects a president.)
Every four years the United States holds an election for president. The major parties (Democrat and Republican) each choose a candidate. Both parties have a series of primary elections. These are contests between candidates in the same political party who are trying to get the nomination of that party. How primaries work varies from state to state. Not all states have primaries. Primaries do not take place on the same day, but happen over a period of months. The first one is usually in February. The final primary might not be until June. This is why our campaigns seem to go on forever. The voters choose between candidates when they are in the voting booth, but they are not actually voting directly for their choice. In reality, the candidate with the most votes wins delegates to send to his or her party’s convention. The delegates all go to their party’s convention where they nominate their choice. The conventions take place during the summer.
Months before candidates start running (campaigning) in the primaries, they announce that they will run. This is because they need to start fundraising for their campaigns. This is another reason the process feels so long! (more…)