It’s Elementary: How we talk about school in the United States.

Posted on Posted in American Culture and Holidays, American English Grammar and Usage, English lessons in New York, New York Culture, Online English lessons, Tutoring

Some of my students are immigrants who’ve started families in the United States or brought their children here. Others might be here for a few years for work. If they have children, they are going to have to navigate the educational system, so here’s a primer for parents with some basic information.  (I’ll do this as a blog series with more to come.)

In the United States, school is compulsory with some exceptions until age 16. This means that children need to be enrolled in some kind of school. Children start kindergarten at age 5, then continue to first grade the following year. There are 12 grades, so most children graduate high school the year they turn 18. 

Schools by grade levels:

Preschool is the term for educational programs for toddlers and very young children — usually up to age 5. We sometimes use the words “pre kindergarten” or “nursery school,” but in recent years, “preschool” has come to dominate. Preschool is not compulsory. There are some public preschool programs, but most preschools are private or independent, and charge fees.

Elementary School (Also known as primary school or grammar school)  Elementary school usually goes from kindergarten to the fourth, fifth, or sixth grade.  Years ago, “elementary school” almost always meant kindergarten through sixth grade, but now most elementary schools only go through the fourth or fifth grade. Sometimes we use the words “primary school” to describe this type of school. Primary school is used in many other parts of the English speaking world, but in the U.S. you are more likely to hear elementary school. You will also sometimes hear people refer to this type of school as “grammar school.”

Middle school goes from the fourth through eighth grades, but this varies in some school districts and cities. In New York City, for example, many public middle schools only have sixth, seventh, and eighth grades, as most public elementary schools go through fifth grade. Middle school replaced an older model of “junior high school” which started in the seventh grade and went through the ninth grade. 

High school grades are ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth. We refer to these years as freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior. Some high schools in the United States offer students advanced placement or other opportunities to gain college credits while in high school. Some schools offer accelerated programs so that students can skip their senior year and go straight to college, while others may offer an additional year for technical skill training — especially for those students that aren’t going on to college.  Many high schools were built as large institutions. In New York City many of the large public high schools were divided into different schools operating on the same campus and sharing some facilities as seen in the photo above this post. 

Types of schools: Public, Private, Religious, Charter

In the United States the vast majority of children go to public schools. We use the term “public school” differently than in England. In England a “public school” is an expensive boarding school supported by tuition and alumni donations. In the United States we use the term “public school” to describe tuition-free schools paid for by tax dollars.  Public schools receive most of their money from local taxes and are controlled by local school boards, so the quality of public schools varies greatly depending on many factors. Many people with “the means” (the money) choose to live in communities with high quality public schools. Most public schools have restrictions based on zoning. If you live outside a community, you might not be able to send your child to that school. Some communities have higher home prices because they are in “good” school districts. (If you are shopping for a home in the United States, you will usually see information about the school district included in the information.)  In the United States, it is not uncommon for even wealthy families to send their children to local public schools. While tuition is free at public schools, some public schools, especially in wealthier districts encourage parents to contribute money to school activities funds. 

You might have heard the term “magnet school.”  Generally a “magnet school” is a public school offering special programs that will attract more students. 

You might also hear terms like “specialized schools.”  In New York City for example there are some high schools with special programs in a specific area such as art, theater, science, technology, etc. It is the aim of these schools to train students for careers in specialized fields. For example, LaGuardia High School in New York City is known for its theater and dance programs. Children are accepted based on auditions. It boasts many famous alumni. Other specialized high schools in New York City include Stuyvesant, Bronx Science, and Brooklyn Tech. These schools offer excellent science and math programs. Students have to get high scores on a test in order to gain admission.

While the word “specialized” denotes specific programs, the phrase  “special ed” or “special education” has a different meaning. In the United States “special education” refers to programs for students with learning disabilities who might need “special” help in order to learn. Sometimes students with special educational needs — whether due to a physical disability or a learning disability — are referred to as “special-needs children.”  There is no charge for these services in public schools. Non-religious private schools do not receive funding for these services, but may by law be required to offer them. Some religious schools are able to receive funding for services to special ed students. If you have a special needs child, you should ask about the programs offered before registering your child at a school.

Generally a school that charges tuition and does not rely on public funding, is called a “private school.” There are also “private schools” that may have a religious affiliation. Some religious schools receive funding from religious organizations and may be lower-cost than non-religious private schools. Private schools often refer to themselves as “independent schools.” This may be because the term “private” sounds elitist, or could confuse the public. Most independent schools offer some scholarships or fee reductions to qualified students who cannot pay the full tuition. Private schools that allow students to live on a campus are also referred to as “boarding schools.”

One movement that has become popular in recent years and that has grown a lot in New York is the “charter school” movement. Charter schools are “independent” schools that receive money from local governments to operate and offer services. Parents don’t pay tuition.  These schools are popular with parents who often think their children will get a better education at a charter school than at a public school. In New York City, charter schools generally offer elementary through middle school grades. Admission is often by lottery, but may also depend on family interviews. 

Because of the separation between church and state in the United States, public schools and charter schools do not offer any religious education, and do not favor any religion. 

(I hope you found this information helpful. Feel free to comment on this post.  If you are interested in English lessons, please get in touch.)


Fun with Phrasal Verbs: Phrasal Verbs with Hold

Posted on Posted in American English Grammar and Usage, Business English, English lessons in New York, ESL tips, New York Culture, Online English lessons, Phrasal Verbs, Tutoring

The verb “hold” in English is a commonly used irregular verb. If you are unsure of the meaning, you can check out the definitions here. Below is a chart showing how the conjugation:

Present tense: I/They/You/We hold  He/She/It holds

Past tense: held

Past participle: held

Here are a few examples of “hold” in sentences:

The happy couple walked down the street holding hands.

Before the accident, he was driving carelessly, with one hand holding the steering wheel, while the other held his phone.

The cat likes to be petted, but he doesn’t like to be held. (passive voice example)

When you hold the baby, make sure to support his head.

We also use “hold” in another less literal sense where it is similar to “keep.”  In traditional wedding vows, the bride and groom each repeat the phrases: “to have and to hold from this day forward.”

Hold is often used when speaking on the phone.  We put people “on hold” while we talk to someone else on a different phone line. Example:  “I have another call coming in. I have to take it. Can I put you on hold for a minute?”

Sometimes if you are expecting a call from someone important, an assistant will call you first and ask if you can “hold” for the person. The assistant is asking you to wait patiently for the person to come to the phone. 

There are several phrasal verbs used with hold.  Today we’ll examine: hold on, hold up, hold off, hold out, hold back, hold in and hold overFor the native speaker, there are clear distinctions, but it might be hard to grasp the differences for non-native speakers.

(Quick review:  A phrasal verb is a verb with an added element — usually a preposition or adverb — which changes or modifies the meaning of that verb.)

Click to see more. (more…)

Words in the News: Woke

Posted on Posted in American Culture and Holidays, American English Grammar and Usage, American politics, American words used in media, Business English, English lessons in New York, ESL Current Events, ESL tips, Online English lessons, Tutoring

My advanced English students, many with high-level positions and graduate degrees, have lately been stumped by a one syllable word: woke.  It appears not only on social media, but often in news stories and opinion pieces.

Try as they might to use logic and context clues  to decipher its meaning, they are lost. The word I am referring to is “woke.” Here are three recent related examples

“Beyond that, however, unions appear to be an important source of political information for their members, potentially helping voters to focus on real policy issues as opposed to, say, the existential threat posed by woke Disney.”  — Paul Krugman, New York Times 4/4/22


In all three cases “woke” is being used derisively though this might not be clear to a non-native speaker who is unaware of the cultural nuance. 

Here is a brief explanation: 

The word “woke” is the past tense of the verb “wake.”  “Woke” has been used as an adjective within the African American community at least since the 1930s to mean to be awake or alert to racial prejudice and its impact and dangers.  It could also mean to be alert/aware of other things as well. (Here’s a link to a Wikipedia entry about this usage.)

“Woke”  was not often used by people outside of the African American community.  Social media changed that.  Several years ago, as groups such as Black Lives Matters gained more allies in other communities, the usage of the word spread — especially on social media sites. The word took on a more general appeal and could be used to describe being “woke” to many different types of injustice. 

Below is a photo of Secretary Marcia Fudge, from 2018 when she was a congressional representative:

Within a very short period of time, right-wing media and opinion-makers glommed onto the word and began to use it to mock people — especially high-profile white Hollywood types — who were using it. It became a signifier for right-wing pundits, similar to the term “politically correct” which they could use to brand people with whom they disagreed and shut down debate. 

It is now used almost exclusively derisively by right-wing media and politicians in the United States.  It is lumped in with other “buzz words” of the culture wars. Right-wing activists, such as Tesla billionaire Elon Musk have called “wokeness” (the noun form of woke) an existential threat to civilization.  Conservative school boards in Texas have banned some books written by African Americans because they feel knowledge of historical discrimination will hurt white students’ feelings and are part of what they call “woke culture.” However nobody on the left identifies as being part of “woke culture” except ironically.

All three of the above articles use “woke” ironically. The writers are not making fun of anyone for being “woke.” They are mocking the use of the word by the right-wing to scare the right-wing base into believing that there is a “woke mob” on the attack. All three examples of “woke” used in the beginning of this post refer to a recent law passed in Florida, popularly known as the “don’t say gay” bill.  This legislation bans the use of certain words and discussion of some topics in elementary schools. There is concern that this legislation could be used to fire teachers and to isolate kids with gay parents. The Disney company, a major employer in Florida, has opposed the legislation.  

In the first quote, with his ironic mention of “woke Disney,” Krugman is mocking  Florida politicians who make speeches against Disney instead of helping the people they are elected to serve. The second quote from twitter, makes a similar point.  If your political agenda is to rail against “woke culture” you aren’t doing your job. The third piece is from a satirical news article making fun of Florida’s decision to ban many math textbooks that they found too “woke.”  That is a based on a true story. Florida really has banned a great number of math textbooks recently.

Why is it important that people learning English know what “woke” means?  The word “woke” may be used humorously in conversation in an ironic way.  It may be used by people on the right to express disdain for people with whom they disagree on some cultural issues. It may be used by people on the left to make fun of people on the right making fun of them! It is used a lot in news stories and opinion pieces, and it can be difficult to understand these stories if you don’t understand the word.

(Comments on this post will be open for two weeks and will appear after moderation. If you are interested in taking English lessons with Marion, contact her here.)

Funky town! Words of the day: Funk and Funky

Posted on Posted in American English Grammar and Usage, Business English, English lessons in New York, ESL tips, Online English lessons, Tutoring

Are you tired of being cooped up? Has lockdown put you into a funk? Do you feel like you are under house arrest?  If so, maybe it’s time for a little English vocabulary lesson focusing on the words funk and funky. If you are having trouble with any other words in this post, don’t worry! There’s a short glossary at the bottom of the page! 

The noun funk is commonly used to describe a bad mood, or a sad feeling, even a slight depression. Often we use it when that mood is the result of following the same boring routine day after day. That is why it may be the perfect expression for how many of us are feeling during this endless quarantine!  You might hear this a lot!

Here are some examples in sentences:

I wouldn’t go into Bob’s office this morning. He got some bad news, and he’s in a bit of a funk.

I am okay, really. I’m just in a funk. It’s so tiring doing the same thing every day!

Sarah has been in a funk for a while. I’m starting to get worried. 

Notice in the above examples, funk is used almost as though it were a location.  A person is  “in a funk” in the same way one might be “in a closet.”

Funk also has some other completely different meanings. It is used to describe a type of music that is anything but  depressing.  Here is the definition of funk from Wikipedia:

Funk is a music genre that originated in African-American communities in the mid-1960s when musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).”

Funk can be used as an adjective to describe this genre of music. For example:

James Brown is one of the best known practitioners of funk music though clearly funk influenced the music of other well-known performers such as Stevie Wonder and Sly and the Family Stone. 

Notice in the above example, funk is used as both an adjective to describe the genre: funk music, and a noun — the name of the genre. 

Now let’s move on to the adjective funky. Here is where things might get a little confusing. Remember how we use “funk” as a noun to describe a depressed mood? The confusing part is that we don’t usually use “funky” as an adjective to mean depressed!. We might  be in a funk, but we would describe our feeling as sad. For example:

I’ve been in a funk for days. I feel so terribly sad and I don’t have the energy to do anything that would help me feel better.

The adjective funky does NOT describe being in a funk.The adjective funky usually means off-beat or eccentric (in a good way) but  it can also mean weird, strange, or peculiar — not in a good way.  Funky can be used in either a positive or negative way. 

You can be in a “funky mood” but this indicates a “strange mood” not necessarily a “depressed mood.”  Someone can have a “funky sense of style,” which indicates a distinct, probably original sense of style. However, a “funky odor” is almost always peculiar or weird and NOT in a good way. Our use of funky is idiomatic, and you have to pay attention to context. 

Here are various examples of funky. In each case, funky has a slightly different meaning. I’ll give you some context clues. Can you think of replacement words for funky in each sentence?

My sister likes wearing lots of bright colors and different patterns. She has a funky sense of style.

I’ve got to clean out my refrigerator. Something in there smells funky!

Let’s not make a plan to do anything outdoors tomorrow. The weather has been really funky, and I don’t want to have to cancel.

Jenna loves wearing funky costume jewelry. The bigger and shinier the better!

I’ve been in a funky mood lately. I don’t know what I want to do later, but I wouldn’t mind doing something a little different, maybe even a little dangerous.

Let’s take a deep dive into those sentences. Shall we?

My sister likes wearing lots of bright colors and different patterns. She has a funky sense of style.  An easy replacement for funky  here  off-beat or eccentric. Other possibilities that might require more context include: unique, brilliant, interesting, etc.

I’ve got to clean out my refrigerator. Something in there smells funky!  Here funky means peculiar in a bad way! You could also use “spoiled” or “rotten.”

Let’s not make a plan to do anything outdoors tomorrow. The weather has been really funky, and I don’t want to have to cancel.  We don’t have a lot of context here, but we can guess that the weather has either been bad or frequently changing so that it might be bad and therefore planning an outdoor activity would not be wise. “Strange” can substitute for funky.

Jenna loves wearing funky costume jewelry. The bigger and shinier the better! Strange would be an easy substitute here. Based on context we could use other adjectives: gauche, loud, gaudy, etc.

I’ve been in a funky mood lately. I don’t know what I want to do later, but I wouldn’t mind doing something a little different, maybe even a little dangerous.  Good replacement choices include: strange, peculiar, weird.

Funky can also refer to funk music. There is a difference between using “funk” and “funky” as adjectives to describe this  type of music.  When we use “funk” as an adjective we are describing the genre of music. For example:

James Brown practically invented funk music

Stevie Wonder’s music shows both funk and jazz influences.

Funky music” can simply mean “cool” music, though this usage is a little out of date . It can also describe music that has some funk elements but isn’t pure funk. It’s more about describing a funk-like attribute or quality of the music rather than the genre. For example:

The band that played at Ella’s wedding had a good funky beat that made it fun to dance.

Some people might argue that the song Play that Funky Music is not an authentic example of funk music, but more a funky rock and roll song. 

I hope that clears up how to use both funk and funky in conversation or when talking about a type of music.  If you have any questions or comments, you are welcome to post a comment! If you are interested in taking private one to one lessons, please contact me! Here is the glossary with some other words and phrases that might be new to you:

Cooped up: a coop is a pen or “house” for domesticated birds such as chickens. To feel “cooped up” is to feel as though you are stuck in a cage. Example: After being cooped up in the house for two weeks, due to the quarantine, Bob was thrilled to go outside for a walk.

Lockdown: To be “under lockdown” or “in lockdown” means you are under orders not to leave your facility or home either as a punishment or because of dangers inside or outside of the facility. Nobody can get in or out of a facility while it is under lockdown.  Examples:  (1) The elementary school was placed under lockdown after the prisoners in the nearby jail escaped. The authorities thought that the children would be in danger if they left the building. (2) The prisoners were in lockdown because someone had stolen some supplies and the guards wanted to check each cell. 

Under house arrest: To be “under house arrest” is when you have been accused or convicted of a crime, but instead of being in jail or prison, you are able to reside in your home under restrictions. Example:  Because of his illness, John was able to leave prison and serve his sentence under house arrest.

Deep dive:  This is an expression using the verb or noun dive. It means to explore something deeply.

Anything but: The phrase “anything but” means “not at all.” Example: His business was anything but successful and closed within months of opening. 

Out of date: In its most literal sense, “out of date” can mean expired in the sense of something no longer being valid. For example: My passport is out of date. I need to get it renewed before I can leave the country. We also use “out of date” in general to mean something old-fashioned. For example: I understand our customs might seem out of date to you, but we don’t use that kind of vulgar language in my house.



The Most Confusing Phrasal Verb in English!

Posted on Posted in American English Grammar and Usage, Business English, English lessons in New York, ESL tips, Online English lessons, Phrasal Verbs, Tutoring

English has tons of idioms and phrasal verbs which are difficult for non-native speakers to master. Phrasal verbs are especially tough because they often have more than one meeting, or the meaning is idiomatic and difficult to explain. I love to teach the difficult ones! One of my favorites is “set off.” “Set off” seems to mean the opposite of what we think it should mean. 

Take a look at the examples below. Can you guess the meaning from the context clues provided?

My house guests forgot to turn off the burglar alarm, and accidentally set it off when they entered through the back door. The sound was very loud and woke the neighbors, who called the police.

Adding the new chemical to the formula set off a chain reaction that led to an explosion. Fortunately, no one in the lab was injured.

The terrorist tried to set off a bomb in his vest by pulling on a cord. Many people would have been killed or injured, but fortunately the bomb’s fuse didn’t ignite, and no one was hurt.

Something must have set Bill off.  When he came in this morning he seemed normal, but later that day he suddenly became upset and yelled at his assistant. Then he announced he left the office abruptly. Did he get some bad news or something?

I wish my neighbors wouldn’t set off fireworks in their backyard. Fireworks are loud and dangerous, not to mention illegal. 

Try this: If you think you understand the meaning of “set off” in the above examples,  substitute another word or phrase for set off:

My house guests accidentally ________________________  the burglar alarm.

Adding the new chemical to the formula ________________ a chain reaction that led to an explosion.

The terrorist tried to ________________ a bomb in his vest by pulling on a cord. 

Something must have ____________  Bill.  

I wish my neighbors wouldn’t  ____________fireworks in their backyard. 

Okay, now that you’ve tried it, I’ll give you an explanation with some possible substitutions

My house guests forgot to turn off the burglar alarm, and accidentally set it off when they entered through the back door.

The burglar alarm STARTED when they entered..

Adding the new chemical set off a chain reaction that led to an explosion.

The new chemical STARTED or CAUSED  a chain reaction.

The terrorist tried to set off a bomb 

The terrorist tried to START the process to make the bomb explode. He tried to IGNITE the bomb.

Something must have set Bill off. 

Something must have CAUSED  Bill TO BECOME ANGRY or upset. Something must have STARTED or IGNITED his anger.

I wish my neighbors wouldn’t set off fireworks in their backyard. 

I wish my neighbors wouldn’t IGNITE fireworks. I wish my neighbors wouldn’t CAUSE fireworks TO EXPLODE.

In all of the above examples to “set off” means to “start” something in the sense of  “ignite” or “spark.”

This can seem counterintuitive because we think of the word “off” as stopping a reaction, not starting one. For example: We turn off the light. We shut off the oven. We complete a journey and get off the bus. However, “off” is a word that can be used in many ways and with different meanings. Context is everything in English.

In all of the examples above “set off” has a similar “explosive” meaning. However, sometimes we use “set off” in a less explosive way. We can use it simply in the sense of starting a journey or trip. Here are some examples:

We set off early in the morning because we wanted to arrive with enough time to enjoy the day.

I’m setting off for Mexico later in the week. The ship sails on Thursday.

When I set off  for work that day, I had no idea that everything in my life was about to change. 

In the examples above, the phrasal verb “head off” could be substituted, as that also means to start a journey.  However, we cannot use “head off” in the previous examples where “set off” means to start in the sense of ignite or spark. “Head off” also has a second meaning. We use “head off” to mean to avoid something by going in a different direction. Let’s look at an example of both of these phrases in the same paragraph:

Bob and John seemed to set each other off. Their personalities were just very different and they didn’t get along with each other or work well together. In order to head off problems, their supervisor placed them on different teams so they never worked directly with each other.

In the above example “set off” is used in the negative sense of igniting some kind of friction. The men didn’t get along. Therefore, the supervisor wanted to “head off” or “avoid” problems, and kept the men separated. The words cannot be used interchangeably. 

There is also a third common use of “set off.” We use “set off” to describe the way one element brings attention to or shows a contrast with another element. We use it in descriptions of people, decorations, designs, etc. Here are two examples:

Jenna looks great in that blue shirt. The light blue color sets off the deep blue of her eyes. It’s a fantastic color for her. You really notice her eyes when she wears it!

There are several lamps in the painting. The light from the lamps is set off against the otherwise bleak scene of war and destruction.The light symbolizes hope and contrasts with the chaos surrounding it.

You are likely to encounter “set off” in everyday speech, as well as in books, movies, and television shows.

I hope you found this lesson on “set off” useful. Feel free to leave comments or questions. If you are interested in taking English lessons with me, please get in touch!


The Old Bait and Switch

Posted on Posted in Business English, English lessons in New York, ESL tips, Online English lessons, Tutoring

Let’s try something different. I’ve created an audio file, so you can listen to this lesson as you follow the transcript below. Words in boldface are explained in a short glossary beneath the text.

“Bait and switch” is a commonly used expression. It comes up in conversation, and it’s mentioned sometimes in newspaper and magazine articles. In fact, if you google it, you’ll find plenty of references!


Welcome to New York! Now learn English and find a job!

Posted on Posted in American Culture and Holidays, American English Grammar and Usage, English lessons in New York, ESL tips, Tutoring

(Quick Disclaimer: I am NOT a lawyer and this blog post does not constitute legal advice. If you have questions about your visa or ability to work in the United States, consult an immigration attorney!)

Congratulations! Your spouse works for a multinational company or organization and just got a job transfer to New York or maybe Los Angeles, or another major American city. You are excited about the prospect of spending a year or maybe more in a foreign country.

However, there’s one little problem….
While this is a great career opportunity for your better-half, it might not be so great for your career. Maybe, if you are very lucky, your company will allow you to stay on and work remotely, but with the time difference between the US and Europe, that might not work out so well. Chances are you are going to have to take a long leave or quit your job.

But there’s some good news: You can work legally in the United States!


I’ll Be Back — Everyday Expressions and Phrases with Back

Posted on Posted in American English Grammar and Usage, English lessons in New York, ESL tips, Tutoring

“Back” is another one of those words with multiple meanings in English. The definition in the English Language Learner’s Dictionary is huge, and it doesn’t even cover some of the most common uses!

Most American native-English speakers will recognize the phrase “I’ll be back.” It was a line from the movie The Terminator. Arnold Swartzeneggar says it very menacingly – as a warning — before he leaves a store. Maybe it sounds scary in the movie BECAUSE it is such a commonly used phrase. The meaning is simple: “I will return.”

For this post, I’ve collected many of the common phrases you’ll here with back.  You’re likely to hear them on the street, in the office, on television, and just about everywhere else. (more…)

5 Easy Labor Day Weekend New York Getaway Day Trips

Posted on Posted in American Culture and Holidays, English lessons in New York, New York Culture, Tutoring


Most of my students are newcomers to New York. Some already understand that New Yorkers love to get away from the city, especially on long weekends during the summer, but if you didn’t make plans, it’s not too late to have a fun three-day weekend. There a lots of interesting places to explore within the five boroughs of New York City, and there are plenty of easy day trips outside of the city that don’t require finding a “last minute”  car rental.

Here are five ideas for outdoor excersions that will feel like mini-vacations.

  1. Explore Manhattan’s Northern Tip

You can start by catching the A train to 207th Street. From there you can visit Fort Tryon Park. The park offers beautiful Hudson River views on winding paths. This is also where you can find visit The Cloisters. You can then walk to Inwood Hill Park, which offers hiking trails with old growth trees. There is also a Nature Center there where you can learn more about the local ecology. Sometimes there are additional activities sponsored by the Parks Department, such as kayaking. (more…)

Got or Gotten? How to Speak North American

Posted on Posted in American Culture and Holidays, American English Grammar and Usage, English lessons in New York, ESL tips, Tutoring

Someone should write a book on all the uses of “get” in the English language. This post is for a select audience of grammar-nerds and advanced English language learners already familiar with “get” in everyday speech. Sorry, but this is not where you are going to learn 500 new idiomatic phrases with “get.” I’m going to attempt to focus on when to use “got” and when to use “gotten.”

Got it?

Okay, let’s go!

Here’s the lowdown:

Most of those handy PDFs that list commonly used irregular verbs have two past participles listed for the verb “get.” Those past participles are “got” and “gotten.” Which one is correct?

Some lists break it down by classifying “got” as British English and “gotten” as American English, but that’s not helpful. In North America(US and Canada) we use both “got” and “gotten” and we use them for different things. (more…)